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Online Reversible Coagulation In Living Tissue X
Components of human blood : The cells and cellular components of human blood are shown. Red blood cells deliver oxygen to the cells and remove carbon dioxide. White blood cells including neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils are involved in the immune response. Platelets form clots that prevent blood loss after injury.
It performs many functions within the body, including:. In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones. Red blood cells, made from bone marrow stem cells, are crucial for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. In birds and non-avian reptiles, red blood cells contain a nucleus. The red coloring of blood comes from the iron-containing protein hemoglobin see [a] in The principal job of this protein is to carry oxygen, but it transports carbon dioxide as well.
Hemoglobin is packed into red blood cells at a rate of about million molecules of hemoglobin per cell. Each hemoglobin molecule binds four oxygen molecules so that each red blood cell carries one billion molecules of oxygen. In mammals, the lack of organelles in erythrocytes leaves more room for the hemoglobin molecules.
The lack of mitochondria also prevents use of the oxygen for metabolic respiration. Only mammals have anucleated red blood cells; however, some mammals camels, for instance have nucleated red blood cells. The advantage of nucleated red blood cells is that these cells can undergo mitosis. Anucleated red blood cells metabolize anaerobically without oxygen , making use of a primitive metabolic pathway to produce ATP and increase the efficiency of oxygen transport.
Different oxygen-carrying proteins : a In most vertebrates, hemoglobin delivers oxygen to the body and removes some carbon dioxide. Hemoglobin is composed of four protein subunits, two alpha chains and two beta chains, and a heme group that has iron associated with it.
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Unlike hemoglobin, hemolymph is not carried in blood cells, but floats free in the hemolymph. Copper, instead of iron, binds the oxygen, giving the hemolymph a blue-green color. Like hemoglobin, hemerythrin is carried in blood cells and has iron associated with it, but despite its name, hemerythrin does not contain heme.
Not all organisms use hemoglobin as the method of oxygen transport. Invertebrates that utilize hemolymph rather than blood use different pigments containing copper or iron to bind to the oxygen. Hemocyanin, a blue-green, copper-containing protein is found in mollusks, crustaceans, and some of the arthropods b. Chlorocruorin, a green-colored, iron-containing pigment, is found in four families of polychaete tubeworms. Hemerythrin, a red, iron-containing protein, is found in some polychaete worms and annelids c. Despite the name, hemerythrin does not contain a heme group; its oxygen-carrying capacity is poor compared to hemoglobin.
The small size and large surface area of red blood cells allow for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the plasma membrane. In the lungs, carbon dioxide is released while oxygen is taken in by the blood. In the tissues, oxygen is released from the blood while carbon dioxide is bound for transport back to the lungs.
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Studies have found that hemoglobin also binds nitrous oxide NO. Nitrous oxide is a vasodilator: an agent that causes dilation of the blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure. It relaxes the blood vessels and capillaries which may help with gas exchange and the passage of red blood cells through narrow vessels.
Nitroglycerin, a heart medication for angina and heart attacks, is converted to NO to help relax the blood vessels, increasiing oxygen flow throughout the body. A characteristic of red blood cells is their glycolipid and glycoprotein coating; these are lipids and proteins that have carbohydrate molecules attached. In humans, the surface glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cells vary between individuals, producing the different blood types, such as A, B, and O.
Red blood cells have an average life span of days, at which time they are broken down and recycled in the liver and spleen by phagocytic macrophages, a type of white blood cell. The role of white blood cells is very different from that of red blood cells. They are primarily involved in the immune response to identify and target pathogens, such as invading bacteria, viruses, and other foreign organisms.
White blood cells are formed continually; some live only for hours or days, while some live for years. The morphology of white blood cells differs significantly from red blood cells. They have nuclei and do not contain hemoglobin. The different types of white blood cells are identified by their microscopic appearance after histologic staining. Each has a different, specialized function. One of the two main groups are the granulocytes, which contain granules in their cytoplasm, and include the neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils a.
The second main group is the agranulocytes, which lack granules in their cytoplasm, and include the monocytes and lymphocytes b. Types of white blood cells : a Granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are characterized by a lobed nucleus and granular inclusions in the cytoplasm. Granulocytes are typically first-responders during injury or infection.
Lymphocytes, including B and T cells, are responsible for adaptive immune response. Monocytes differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells, which in turn respond to infection or injury. Some white blood cells become macrophages that either stay at the same site or move through the blood stream and gather at sites of infection or inflammation where they are attracted by chemical signals from foreign particles and damaged cells. Lymphocytes are the primary cells of the immune system.
They include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells. B cells destroy bacteria and inactivate their toxins; they also produce antibodies. T cells attack viruses, fungi, some bacteria, transplanted cells, and cancer cells. Natural killer cells attack a variety of infectious microbes and certain tumor cells.
One reason that HIV poses significant management challenges is because the virus directly targets T cells by gaining entry through a receptor. After the HIV virus replicates, it is transmitted directly from the infected T cell to macrophages.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation - Cancer Therapy Advisor
The presence of HIV can remain unrecognized for an extensive period of time before full disease symptoms develop. Platelets and coagulation factors are instrumental in plugging damaged blood vessel walls and stopping blood loss. Blood must form clots to heal wounds and prevent excess blood loss. Small cell fragments called platelets thrombocytes are formed from the disintegration of larger cells called megakaryocytes a. For each megakaryocyte, — platelets are formed with , to , platelets present in each cubic millimeter of blood.
They contain many small vesicles, but do not contain a nucleus. How platelets are made and how they work : a Platelets are formed from large cells called megakaryocytes.